Follow us
Facebook Twitter
Clinical Expertise

Grzesiaks Clinic uses the most technologically advanced imaging program


Live Consultation
24X7 eehealthbook

eeHealthbook knowledge Renal stone the silent killer

Reviewed by
Dr. Pradip Chauhan

Kidney stones ( renal colic or ureterolithiasis )The stones are solid concretions or calculi (crystal aggregations) formed in the kidneys from dissolved urinary minerals. Nephrolithiasis refers to the condition of having kidney stones. Urolithiasis refers to the condition of having calculi in the urinary tract (which also includes the kidneys), which may form or pass into the urinary bladder. Ureterolithiasis is the condition of having a calculus in the ureter, the tube connecting the kidneys and the bladder. The term bladder stones usually applies to urolithiasis of the bladder in non-human animals such as dogs and cats.

localization and symptoms of kidney stone pain

  • Colicky pain: "loin to groin". Often described as "the worst pain [...] ever experienced". This can also occur in the lower back.
  • Nausea/vomiting: embryological link with intestine- stimulates the vomiting center.
  • Hematuria: blood in the urine, due to minor damage to inside wall of kidney, ureter and/or urethra.
  • Pyuria: pus in the urine.
  • Dysuria: burning on urination when passing stones (rare). More typical of infection.
  • Oliguria: reduced urinary volume caused by obstruction of the bladder or urethra by stone, or extremely rarely, simultaneous obstruction of both ureters by a stone.
  • Postrenal azotemia: the blockage of urine flow through a ureter.
  • Hydronephrosis:[6] the distension and dilation of the renal pelvis and calyces.


Staghorn Calculus
Staghorn Calculus

Kidney stones can be due to underlying metabolic conditions, such as renal tubular acidosis Dent's disease,hyperparathyroidism, primary hyperoxaluria and medullary sponge kidney. Kidney stones are also more common in patients with Crohn's disease. Patients with recurrent kidney stones should be screened for these disorders. This is typically done with a 24 hour urine collection that is chemically analyzed for deficiencies and excesses that promote stone formation.

Uric acid (urate)

Calcium oxalate stones

Other types

Other types of kidney stones are composed of struvite (magnesium, ammonium and phosphate); calcium phosphate; and cystine.


Preventive strategies include dietary modifications and sometimes also taking drugs with the goal of reducing excretory load on the kidneys:

  • Drinking enough water to make 2 to 2.5 liters of urine per day.
  • A diet low in protein, nitrogen and sodium intake.
  • Restriction of oxalate-rich foods, such as chocolate, nuts, soybeans, rhubarb and spinach,plus maintenance of an adequate intake of dietary calcium. There is equivocal evidence that calcium supplements increase the risk of stone formation, though calcium citrate appears to carry the lowest, if any, risk.
  • Taking drugs such as thiazides, potassium citrate, magnesium citrate and allopurinol, depending on the cause of stone formation.
  • Some fruit juices, such as orange, blackcurrant, and cranberry, may be useful for lowering the risk factors for specific types of stones. Orange juice may help prevent calcium oxalate stone formation, black currant may help prevent uric acid stones, and cranberry may help with UTI-caused stones.
  • Limit intake of caffeinated beverages, such as coffee.
  • Avoidance of cola beverages.
  • Avoiding large doses of vitamin C.

For those patients interested in optimizing their kidney stone prevention options, a 24 hour urine test can be a useful diagnostic.

For further information contact:

Other Topics: Amnesia
  Genital Herpes
Official partner for India
Official partner for India
Your asset : Heart Brain lung Kidney Eye more
Emergencies : Cardiac Neurological Respiratory Renal Ocular more
Health issue : Acid reflux Acne Arthritis Backache Cancer Dandruff
    Child health Contraception diabetes Depression Eye care Food allergy
    Health care Heart attack Parkinsonism Psychiatry Pregnancy Care Relationship
    Sex Stroke Weight loss Yoga Meditation more



This site and its services, including the information above, are for informational purposes only and are not a substitute for professional medical or health advice, examination, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health professional before starting any new treatment, making any changes to existing treatment, or altering in any way your current exercise or diet regimen. Do not delay seeking or disregard medical advice based on information on this site. Medical information changes rapidly and while eeHealthbook and its content providers make efforts to update the content on the site, some information may be out of date. No health information on eeHealthbook, including information about ayurvedic therapes, alternative medicie, herbal therapies and other dietary supplements, is regulated or evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration, US, (USFDA) and Central Drugs Standard Control Organization, India (CDSCO) and therefore the information should not be used to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease without the supervision of a medical doctor.

Official Partner for India:-
Copyright © 2010 All rights reserved. Design : brainwaves