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Brain Brain keeps the body working

Written by
Dr. Pradip Chauhan

brain is the center of the nervous system of the human body.


  • Brains can be extremely complex. Simply saying it is divided In two part. As well outer part is called cortex. Inner part is called medulla. The cerebral cortex of the human brain contains roughly 15-33 billion neurons(nerve cell) perhaps more, depending on gender and age,linked with up to 10,000 synaptic (connection between two or more nerve cells) connections each. The nerve cells communicate with each other through signals called action potential.
  • The adult human brain weighs on average about 3 lb (1.5 g)
  • Size around 1250-1350 cm3
  • Men's brains are on average 100g heavier than women's, even when corrected for body size differences. The brain is very soft, having a consistency similar to soft gelatin or firm tofu. matter".

Parts of the brain:

The cerebral hemispheres form the largest part of the human brain and are situated above most other brain structures.

Underneath the cerebrum lies the brainstem, resembling a stalk on which the cerebrum is attached.

At the rear of the brain, beneath the cerebrum and behind the brainstem, is the cerebellum a structure with a horizontally furrowed surface that makes it look different from any other brain area.

Cerebrum is further divided in various parts:

  • Frontal lobe: lobe for personality
  • Parietal lobe: lobe managing learning,motor activity, sensory activity
  • Temporal lobe: lobe for hearing and speech, learning

The cerebral cortex is essentially a sheet of neural tissue, folded in a way that allows a large surface area to fit within the confines of the skull. Each cerebral hemisphere, in fact, has a total surface area of about 1.3 square feet .Anatomists call each cortical fold a sulcus , and the smooth area between folds a gyrus. Most human brains show a similar pattern of folding, but there are enough variations in the shape and placement of folds to make every brain unique.

Parts of the Brain

Functions of the brain:

  • The brain controls the other organ systems of the body, either by activating muscles or by causing secretion of chemicals such as hormones.
  • This centralized control allows rapid and coordinated responses to changes in the environment.
  • Some basic types of responsiveness are possible without a brain: even single-celled organisms may be capable of extracting information from the environment and acting in response to it.
  • Sophisticated control of behavior on the basis of complex sensory input requires the information-integrating capabilities of a centralized brain.
  • Despite rapid scientific progress, much about how brains work remains a mystery. The operations of individual neurons and synapses are now understood in considerable detail, but the way they cooperate in ensembles of thousands or millions has been very difficult to decipher. Methods of observation such as EEG recording and functional brain imaging tell us that brain operations are highly organized, while single unit recording can resolve the activity of single neurons, but how individual cells give rise to complex operations is unknown.

Evaluation of the brain pathology

  • By physical examination
  • Orientation of the patient
  • Clinical evaluation
  • Radiological imaging: MRI, CT SCAN
  • EEG
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